Abstract. This document updates and expands the initial Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Fever and Neutropenia Guideline that. Risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) should be systematically assessed (in consultation with infectious disease specialists as needed), including. Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a serious complication of cancer chemotherapy that The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), National.

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Hand hygiene, maximal sterile barrier precautions, and cutaneous antisepsis with chlorhexidine during CVC insertion are recommended for all CVC insertions A- – I. Meropenem versus ceftazidime as empirical monotherapy for febrile neutropenic cancer patients. Rather, the recommendations outlined in these guidelines are generally applicable in most clinical situations but, in some instances, will require modifications according to circumstances and local epidemiologic data.

A comparative study of cefepime versus ceftazidime as empiric therapy of febrile episodes in neutropenic patients. Compliance with a critical pathway for the management of febrile neutropenia and impact on clinical outcomes. However, these agents may be considered in modifications of initial treatment as additional therapy for patient-based needs, such as suspicion of catheter-related infection, skin or soft-tissue infection, pneumonia, hemostatic instability, or antibiotic resistance.

Ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate in combination is recommended for oral empirical treatment A-I. Antimicrobial therapy of multidrug-resistant Strptococcus pneumoniaevancomycin-resistant enterococci, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

This may be achieved by a change from an initial cephalosporin to an anti-pseudomonal carbapenem, such as imipenem or meropenem, as well as by the prompt addition of an aminoglycoside, ciprofloxacin, or aztreonam together with vancomycin.

Patients with respiratory complaints, including cough and nasal congestion or a pulmonary infiltrate noted on chest radiograph during the peri-transplant period, should be evaluated by examination of nasopharyngeal swab or washing specimens.

Given that fever is an especially nonspecific surrogate for invasive fungal infection, neutropehia true utility of requiring empirical antifungal therapy for every neutropenic patient on the basis of persistent fever alone must be questioned.

Furthermore, even if blood cultures remain negative, empirical antibiotics are considered vital to cover possible occult infections in febrile neutropenic patients. Prophylaxis with an HSV-active agent, such as acyclovir, should be offered to all HSV-seropositive autologous or allogeneic HSCT recipients [ ] and patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction or reinduction therapy [ ].

Current blood culture methods and systems: However, a recent study suggests that S. No agent been shown to prevent RSV upper respiratory infection from progressing to RSV pneumonia, although a modest effect had been observed in a retrospective analysis [ ].

Practice Guidelines

Yeast primarily Candida species and molds typically cause infections, which are manifested by persistent or recurrent fever in patients with prolonged neutropenia, rather than causing initial fever in the course of neutropenia [ ].


Live attenuated formulations of influenza vaccine should be avoided in patients who are receiving chemotherapy cycles or are within 6 months after the end of therapy. Recommended treatment for low-risk patients includes combination oral antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate.

This may be accomplished with a variety of antibiotic regimens, including both multidrug combinations and monotherapy regimens, but the ultimate selection of a particular empirical antibiotic regimen should be based on the risk status of the patient low vs high ; on localizing signs or symptoms of infection, such as pulmonary febrille or cellulitis; and especially on trends in the epidemiology of pathogens causing infections in neutropenic patients, with special attention to local and even individual patient patterns of bacterial colonization and resistance.

The Relevance of Neutroenia Neutropenia in Oncology.

For documented infections, the duration of antibiotic therapy should be appropriate for effective eradication of the identified infection.

Fluconazole is an effective prophylactic antifungal in allogeneic HSCT recipients when used from the onset of conditioning, through neutropenia, and extended to at least day 75 after receipt of transplant.

Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: Physician Leadership of Population Health Services. More recently, Cordonnier et al [ ] demonstrated, in a randomized trial, that preemptive antifungal therapy was a safe alternative to empirical antifungal therapy in a selected group of high-risk neutropenic patients.

Certain predictive hematological criteria may be substituted as an endpoint for resolution of neutropenia, including a daily increase in the absolute phagocyte count bands and mature neutrophils combinedthe absolute monocyte count, or the reticulocyte fraction [ 22252731, — ]. Data are insufficient to recommend a specific empirical antifungal agent for a patient already receiving anti-mold prophylaxis, but switching to a different class of anti-mold antifungal given intravenously should be considered B-III.

Previously published guidelines by the IDSA [ 1 ], the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation ASBMT [ ], as well as guidelines from professional societies in Japan [ ], Chile [ ], and Germany [ ], have not recommended routine application of prophylactic antibiotics for fever and neutropenia.

Emerging Infections and Biothreat. Data are insufficient to recommend a specific empirical antifungal agent for a patient already receiving anti-mold prophylaxis, but switching to a different class of anti-mold antifungal that is given intravenously should be considered B-III.

Among lower-risk patient populations, invasive candidiasis is rare [ ] and generally does not merit routine fluconazole prophylaxis. Renal and liver function are routinely investigated during the initial assessment for serum creatinine levels, blood urea nitrogen, electrolytes, hepatic transaminase enzymes, and total bilirubin to plan supportive care and appropriate treatment. Diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infections among pediatric oncology patients lacking a peripheral culture, using differential time to detection.


Antifungal therapy should be instituted if any of these indicators of possible invasive fungal infection are identified. For example, it is recommended by Panel members that neutropenic patients who are not febrile but who have new signs or symptoms that suggest infection have empirical antibiotics initiated. Empiric antibiotic and antifungal therapy for cancer patients with prolonged fever and granulocytopenia. Neutropenic patients who are colonized with MRSA may benefit from early empirical use of vancomycin specifically, if they are hemodynamically unstable or if gram-positive cocci are detected in their blood cultures.

The bacterial, viral, and fungal prophylaxis recommendations herein reflect the Panel’s interpretations of clinical trial results.

Guidelines in the Management of Febrile Neutropenia for Clinical Practice

To optimize skin integrity, patients should take daily showers or baths during any hospitalization for cancer therapy or complication. A single blood culture positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci should generally be dismissed as attributable to a contaminant, assuming that a second set of blood specimens have been drawn that have negative culture results.

Changes in the etiology of bacteremia in febrile neutropenic patients and the susceptibilities of the currently isolated pathogens. Udsa addition, earlier detection of invasive fungal infections has led to debate regarding optimal use of empirical or preemptive antifungal therapy, although algorithms are still evolving.

Hebart and colleagues compared empirical antifungal therapy versus PCR-driven preemptive antifungal therapy after allogeneic stem cell transplant [ ] in patients receiving anti-yeast prophylaxis.

If outpatient management is prescribed, debrile vigilant observation and prompt access to appropriate medical care must also be ensured 24 h a day, 7 days a week.

The galactomannan assay detects only Aspergillus species and Penicillium species, which is a rare pathogen in the United States and does not detect other pathogenic fungi, although cross-reactivity to Histoplasma capsulatum has been described [ ]. Additional diagnostic tools include blood tests, microbiologic cultures, and radiographic studies.

Large surveys of fluoroquinolone use in children who do not have cancer have not identified serious problems, although the drugs may be associated with more musculoskeletal adverse effects, compared with other classes of antibiotics [ — ].

Reproduced with permission of the American Society for Clinical Oncology. If antifungal prophylaxis has not been given, then candidemia is initially the greatest concern. However, these definitions are not hard-and-fast rules.