: English: History, Diversity and Change (English Language: Past, Present and Future) (): David Graddol, Dick Leith, Joan Swann: . The emphasis in this book is on the diversity of English throughout its history and the changing social meanings of David Graddol, Dick Leith, Joan Swann. This book is about history, diversity and change in English. English history, diversity and change Edited by David Graddol, Dick Leith and Joan Swann Ug.

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Mehrotra is here focusing on the extent to which the text differs from a standard variety of English, but the commentary is designed for an international audience.

Open to the public Book; Illustrated English Show 0 more libraries And the interest continues, with new series of programmes being designed to meet the needs of scientific and business users.

English: History, Diversity, and Change – Google Books

These often refer to natural features such as rivers, hills and woods. A number of languages have been turned into standard, cahnge languages in the twentieth century as the result of deliberate policy and language planning: Init is thought, around million people watched the BBC television chsnge designed to teach the language, Follow Me.

Interesting light is graddpl on this change in the legal process by the recent discovery of records of a bigamy trial held at York in In Nigeria, for example, they would have to choose between Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and other languages belonging to different ethnic groups. Found at these bookshops Searching – please wait English might be regarded as part of the colonial legacy, but in fact its current position is rather ambiguous. Graddol, David, et al, Eds.

Also, it is old enough ‘s so that issues created by the use of English in traddol media are barely touched upon. Comment You will have noted that Crystal deals mostly with internal evidence: But what is surprising about these figures is their lack of precision.

English: History, Diversity and Change

One may sympathise with them, or one may feel that there is no such thing as a pure form of French or of any other language and dismiss their arguments as unrealistic.


At the level of the hiistory, eloquence was achieved by imitating the rhetorical structures of Latin. Not only have individual words changed in spelling and pronunciation, but key features of grammar have altered too.

engllsh Finally, fake English words are often adopted by large numbers of French speakers, perhaps in the belief that they chwnge are English, or perhaps because they are perceived to fill a gap in the vocabulary, for example, un rugbyman and un tennisman with its feminine une tenniswoman.

Tok Pisin began life as a pidgin, a contact variety that develops between people who do not share a common language. Lukas added it Aug 18, The church was another institution facing acute divisions in the latter half of the fourteenth century.

The Statute followed shortly after a second outbreak of the plague known as the Black Death, which had so reduced the rural population that labour had become scarce. For example, Njogu reports that the Kenyan Ministry of Education regards sheng as a contributor to poor performance in school examinations in both English and Kiswahili and recommends that it should be banned. It is used for several institutional purposes and for communication between people from different states, each of which has its own state language or languages.

Different varieties of English from more regional to more international are often associated with these different speaking contexts. Not only have prosecutions under the Toubon law been very rare, but the law has been unable to cope with the arrival of the internet.

The fashion for English words, or for franglais, which is a mixture of English and French, is not new to the French. Where did chxnge come from? See Chapter 5, Section 5. In general, attitudes to French and France can be characterised historg ambivalent: If these assumptions are valid, quite hlstory lot of information about possible Old English pronunciations may be inferred from spellings. A Colombian doctor reports grwddol he spends almost as much time improving his English as practising medicine.


During the Norman-French invasion, the English language adopted a lot of words that originally were French, e. His interests include prosodic phonology and Anglo-Welsh literature. By the end of the first century AD the increasingly cosmopolitan flavour of the urban population will have resulted in many languages being heard in Britain with the consequence that a knowledge of Latin would have been essential for efficient communication between people who could have originated as far afield as Scotland, Africa or Turkey.

When the Normans took over England, they introduced thousands of French loanwords into the English they eventually adopted, as well as French conventions of spelling Although the dictionary is highly prescriptive in its prohibition against borrowings, it is also constructive in that it offers a wealth of French coinages as alternatives.

English: History, Diversity and Change by David Graddol

We need to bear in mind: These 6 locations in New South Wales: The story is seen as authoritative evidence of linguistic disorder and therefore justifying the argument that English was in need of standardisation. One visitor returned to China inafter an absence of twenty years, and wrote: Estimates of English awareness in the general population are difficult to make, but an India Today survey in concluded that perhaps a third of the population well over anc had some competence in the language.

There is no obvious cut-off point beyond which we can say that variability and change within English hietory given rise to new languages. We cannot escape the fact that it is impractical, unrealistic, and even futile to talk of British or American norms or models in such a vast and diverse country where millions of people learn, use and interact in English. But its historical spread has also been at the cost of other languages and of speakers of those dvid.