Abstract. OBJECTIVES Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth. Oromandibular dystonia is a form of focal dystonia affecting the mouth, jaw and tongue, and in this disease it is hard to speak. It is associated with bruxism. Oromandibular dystonia causes spasms of the jaw, lips, and tongue muscles. This dystonia can cause problems with speech and swallowing.

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Korean Assoc Oral Oromajdibular Surg. Duo to various dental treatment options, all people are somehow oromandibula involved in dental treatments, with which OMD is likely to coincide. The patients had worn the dentures from a minimum of 1 to many years before noticing the abnormal movements.

Secondary nonresponsiveness to botulinum toxin type A in patients with oromandibular dystonia. Dystonia is either idiopathic primary or follows a peripheral injury. Different online databases namely PubMed, Google scholar, and Scopus were searched.

Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Oromandibular Dystonia: an Update for Stomatologists

The clinicians should consider the possibility of OMD in cases of parafunctional movements such as bruxism and clenching. Finding intraoral sensory trick and fabrication of prosthetic devices can help dental professionals to treat the symptoms of OMD. Open in a separate window. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Oromandibular kromandibular OMD is a rare focal neurological disorder that affects mouth, face, and jaws.

Searching the databases yielded a few articles on OMD patients who received dental management. Follow-up after three months was done and revaluation of the muscular functions was done with electromyography study, which revealed absence of fasciculations, contractions and quality of life assessments were done, and a significant improvement in the assessment score was calculated Figure 4. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.


Some novel methods employed to relieve this syndrome have led oromandibulsr certain cure or improvement of symptoms in several cases. Brain MRI did not show any definite abnormal brain findings or brainstem lesion. Find articles by Saeed Raoofi. Support Center Support Center.

Management of Oromandibular Dystonia: A Case Report and Literature Update

Prompt diagnosis in the presented case formed the key to a successful management and improved the quality of life of a disheartened patient.

Surgery for Dystonia and Tremor. Tic disorders in school-age children are higher, with the more common tics of eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. MAB is a promising means of treating OMD, which is less expensive and cause no major side effect or resistance to the therapy. The randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, case series, and single case reports containing a report on a clinical outcome were included.

Long-term efficacy, safety, and side effect profile of botulinum toxin in dystonia: Clinical presentations depend on the affected muscles, as well as the severity and distribution of OMD. The botulinum toxin BTX is a naturally occurring neurotoxin that is produced by gram-positive anaerobic bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Follow-up visits at six-month period revealed complete absence of the dystonic contractions. Although some cases of OMD have been reported after dental procedures, the causal relationship between these procedures and dystonia is still unclear.

According to the therapeutic use of BoNT, it is recommended that training should be at least included in the curriculum of some postgraduate specialties in dentistry. The mechanism and the cause of OMD are not well known.

Management of Oromandibular Dystonia: A Case Report and Literature Update

J Neural Transm Vienna. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. Head and neck dystonia manifest clinically by the presence of involuntary sustained, forceful muscle contractions, and characteristic rhythmic movements and abnormal posture.

Psychosocial and occupational therapy, support groups participation, cognitive behavioral therapy,[ 15 ] and deep brain stimulation surgery were also designed to reduce the hyperactivity of the muscles. The diagnosis of OMD is clinical and complicated, since it presents in various forms and severities. This disorder is very rare. If you are a former subscriber or have registered distknia, please log in first and then click select a Service Plan or contact Subscriber Services.


The foregoing terms may include synonyms, similar disorders, variations in usage, and abbreviations. A double-blind, prospective trial of high-dosage trihexyphenidyl.

Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Oromandibular Dystonia: an Update for Stomatologists

Table 1 The articles categorized based on dental etiology. This response is well recognized in musicians. She had no history of consanguineous marriage and had no first-degree relative with neurological disorders.

The relationship between trauma and idiopathic torsion dystonia. Oromandibular dystonia OMD is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, paroxysmal, and patterned muscle contractions of varying severity resulting in sustained spasms of masticatory muscles, affecting the jaws, tongue, face, and pharynx. However a marked bulge is still apparent on her right half of forehead region which could be due to the muscular hyperactivity with probable hypertrophy in the involved muscle, a feature which has not been reported in the previous reported literature.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Physiotherapy Physiotherapy is thought to promote brain re-wiring over time, so as to reduce the dystonic movements. There is no ideal treatment for oromandibular dystonia, but a few approaches can help to alleviate symptoms.

BoNT injection is mainly technique- dependent. Anticholinergic drugs reduce muscle spasm by centrally inhibiting the parasympathetic system.