Muscle Nerve –, BRACHIAL PLEXOPATHIES: CLASSIFICATION,. CAUSES, AND CONSEQUENCES. MARK A. FERRANTE. Brachial plexopathies: classification, causes, and consequences. (English) . Cervical rib and median sternotomy-related brachial plexopathies: a reassessment. Items 1 – 20 Brachial Plexopathies, Classification, Causes and Consequences (Muscle and Nerve, ) – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read.

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RTW status should be determined only after maximum medical improvement. Wikiquote 0 entries edit. Analysis of outcomes 10 years after trauma reveals that those with brachial plexus injury have lower rates of employment and worse outcome scores.

The barchial of brachial plexus injury in polytrauma is of poor prognostic significance. Brachial plexus is a braachial nervous system structure that extends from the cervicothoracic spinal cord to the axilla and provides motor, sensory, and autonomic innervation to the upper extremities. Wiktionary 0 entries edit. C5-T1 with Horner syndrome Klumpke palsy: Return to work RTW: February 28, Wikisource 0 entries edit.

Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Author s: There are no required laboratory analyses in the work-up of brachial plexopathy however basic laboratory assessments may be helpful in ruling out alternative causes of weakness or in looking for triggers of NA. Views Read View history. An integrated care team should include a physiatrist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, hand brachoal, occupational therapist, physical therapist, electrodiagnostician, pain specialist, and possibly an oncologist or pediatric neurologist.

Brachial plexopathies: classification, causes, and consequences.

Thus, preganglionic total arm brachial plexus injury seems to be the type of injury that classifciation benefit most from earlier nerve reconstruction procedures, especially for hand function reconstruction, which can be obstinate to treatment.

Brachial plexopathy is an injury of the brachial plexus, most commonly caused by trauma. Report on 99 patients.

Spontaneous brachisl is rare with complete axonal discontinuity, manifested by complete absence of CMAPs, absence of motor unit action potentials MUAPs despite good effort, and abnormal spontaneous activity. Functional assessment Assess for specific deficits in the following: Even with severe initial injury, electrodiagnostic evidence of recovery is expected within months with many showing full re-innervation by one year.


Potential donors for nerve transfers are considered and availability of these checked.

Phrenic nerve injury may occur caauses conjunction with traumatic and non-traumatic plexopathies and may present as hemidiaphragmatic elevation on chest x-ray. Of note, these authors found that motor function and functional status did not correlate with employment.

Pre-operative electromyography EMG of muscles innervated by potential donor nerves may be helpful in identifying subclinical injury to these nerves. Social role and social support system A recent publication about patient reported outcomes of health related quality of life after neonatal brachial plexus suggests that physical limitations, followed by social health, and to a lesser degree, emotional health remain significant long-term issues in these patients.

Most stated that their brachial plexus injury had little or no role in their relationships. Wikivoyage 0 pkexopathies edit. Graft length of graft of 6—8 cm is acceptable for obtaining satisfactory results, as results are poorer for more extensive lesions requiring longer graft lengths.

Rates of employment do seem to be affected by injury. Lower roots C8-T1 are the most susceptible to avulsion. Serial casting may initially improve more severe contractures and nighttime splinting may be effective in preventing contracture progression.

Brachial Plexopathy: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment – PM&R KnowledgeNow

Intraoperative neurophysiology may help in diagnosing root avulsions and determining viable donor nerve for surgery in the event of equivocal pre-operative studies. History Duration of symptoms Characteristics of pain, sensory changes, weakness, and muscle atrophy Infection, activity, or injury associated with onset Change in symptoms with change in head, neck, or arm position Autonomic symptoms Change in function activities of daily living [ADLs], sports performance, etc Personal or familial history of neoplasm, radiation, chemotherapy, demyelinating disorders, diabetes or previous brachial plexopathy Details of pregnancy and delivery in neonatal patients Physical examination Standardized neurologic examination Tests of manual muscle strength, sensation, and reflexes commensurate with the affected portions of the plexus May include Tinel sign over the brachial plexus Vascular: Neonatal brachial plexopathy may be associated with glenohumeral joint dysplasia, joint contractures shoulder, elbow, supinationposterior shoulder dislocation, or length discrepancies.


The patient then takes a deep breath and holds while extending the neck and rotating toward the affected side. Based on whether the injury is proximal or distal to the dorsal root ganglion DRGthey are further characterized as preganglionic and postganglionic, respectively.

To pexopathies, outcome reporting for brachial plexus surgery has largely centered on motor recovery and typically has not included measures of function or non-musculoskeletal recovery. Wikibooks 0 entries edit.

LAC, median thumbmedian second digit Posterior cord: Nerve transfers may borrow from other important nerve such as the phrenic nerve, intercostal nerves, and spinal accessory nerve. From proximal to distal, its elements are the following:. Resources, including psychology, vocational rehabilitation, ergonomics, and driver training, can be cwuses as necessary.

The incidence of radiation-induced plexopathies has decreased with tissue-sparing targeted radiotherapy. It is caused classjfication narrowed thoracic outlet, possibly because of cervical rib likely a fibrous band running from a rudimentary cervical rib to the first thoracic rib or hypertrophied anterior scalene or ischemic injury caused by restricted flow through the subclavian artery.

Patel, MD Comments are off. Timing is a crucial factor in determining the outcome after surgery as the distal nerve and the neuromuscular junction become increasingly incapable of accepting reinnervation by 20—24 months.