To understand normalization in database with example tables, let’s assume that we are supposed to store the details of courses and instructors. Lets consider the database extract shown above. This depicts a special dieting clinic where the each patient has 4 appointments. On the first they are weighed. Insertion, Updation and Deletion Anamolies are very frequent if database is not normalized. To understand these anomalies let us take an example of a Student .

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Suppose for a new admission, until and unless a student opts withh a branch, data of the student cannot be inserted, or else we exaple have to set the branch information as NULL. So, it is a superkey. Columns in a table that are NOT used to identify a record uniquely are called non-key columns. Here, the first column is the student name and the second column is the course taken by the student. A superkey whose size number of columns is the smallest is called as a candidate key.

Well, a primary key is a set of columns that uniquely identifies a row. Insertion, Updation and Deletion Anamolies are very frequent if database is not normalized.


Yes, there are also the first, second, fourth, fifth normal form.

What is Normalization? 1NF, 2NF, 3NF & BCNF with Examples

In that datzbase, we can say that fact table is denormalized, but it would be much better to say that schema is denormalized. Here, the department column is dependent on the professor name column.

Let us first understand what a superkey means. While designing schema for applications, we should always think about how can we make use of these forms. Ensuring data dependencies make sense i. Does database normalization reduce the database size?

The evolution of Normalization theories is illustrated below- Database Normalization Examples – Assume a video library maintains a database of movies rented out.

Normalization of Database

They store the data like this: To make this relation table satisfy BCNF, we will decompose this table into two tables, student table and professor table. We will now more formally study it. Olive Yu December 4, 7: And now, this relation satisfy Boyce-Codd Normal Form. A trivial functional dependency means that all columns of B are contained in the columns of A. Dwayne Hicks December 5, Here is the Third Normal Form tutorial.

The Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF) | Vertabelo

These scenarios are nothing but Insertion anomalies. Each student may enrol in multiple courses. When developing the schema of a relational database, one of the most important aspect to be taken into account is to ensure that the duplication is minimized.


Peg Lee December 4, 7: What is the purpose or need of normalization in database? Our website uses cookies.

April 4, Updated: What if someone just edited the mobile number against CS, but forgot to edit it for CS? The table is not in BCNF. For a table to be in BCNF, following conditions must be satisfied:. Hi, You might be interested in this article: Then in star schema, you will only have the employee table and sxample the department data for each employee.

This can cause inconsistency in the database. If you want you can skip the video, as the concept is covered in detail, below the video. A transitive functional dependency is when changing a non-key column, might cause any of the other non-key columns to change Consider the table 1.