PDF | A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one. Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine-Al-qanun fi al-tibb. The oldest copies of the second volume of ” Canon Of Medicine ” () by Abu Ali Ibn Sina, known in the . A historical approach could help in the detection of some viewpoints that cannot be paid attention to or signified by a purely medical one.

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In other words, it is the art whereby health is concerned and the art by which it is restored after being lost. Book 5 the Formulary lists compound drugs, [2] [8]: We still have to look at the mental powers or faculties that motivate this body. Padova; Editoriale Programma, ; p The obverse depicts a scene showing Avicenna surrounded by his disciples, inspired by a miniature in a 17th-century Turkish manuscript; whilst on the reverse is a phrase by Avicenna in Arabic and Latin: George Sarton wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science: Serous humour resembles blood and is necessary for body tissues for two reasons: One of these aspects, however, has not been very widely discussed, namely his views on education.

Ibn Sina’s The Canon of Medicine

Further description of youth in regards to heat and moisture is given with respect to sex, geographical location, and occupation. The Canon contains seven rules for experimenting with new drugs, taken partly from Galen. He defined medicine tibb as follows:. The period of formation of the teeth.

If its initial effect is contrary to what comes later, or if there is no initial effect at first and the effect shows up later, this leads to uncertainty and confusion. He describes what he says are the ” four causes ” of illness, based on Aristotelian philosophy: Examples of the sixteen intemperaments are provided in the “third and fourth volumes.

His philosophical views have engaged the attention of Western thinkers over several centuries, and his books have been among the most important sources in philosophy. Chinese Japanese Korean Mongolian Tibetan. To ensure gentle catheterisation, Ibn Sina designed catheters with rounded, firm tips and many side holes from the skin of certain marine and other animals. The Canon says, for example, that females are colder and more moist. He was also the first to point out the fact that haematuria may be due to causes outside the urinary system, for example, blood diseases.


The elements we experience are mixed with small amounts of other elements and are therefore not the pure elemental substances.

Reduction involved the use of pressure and traction to correct bone and joint deformities. The general notion that youth are “hot” in temperament is due to youth’s supposed relationship to members of the body that are hot.

Apart from the methodical classification and precise descriptions of aetiological factors and signs in his chapter on urinary disturbances, Ibn Sina pointed out the role of psychological factors in the treatment of certain cases of nocturnal nuresis.

In general, there are four types of proper spirit: Fevers related to serous humour Rheumatism. The material cause, the efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause: It fell out of favour in university syllabi, although it was still being taught as background literature as late as in Padua. Retrieved 20 December If that is not the case, the effect is then accidental, because things that occur naturally are always or mostly consistent.

Liber Canonis, de Medicinis Al-qanub et Cantica, iam olim quidem a Gerardo Carmonensi ex arabico in latinum conversa. If the experiment is carried out on the bodies a-qanun [other animals] it is possible that it might fail for two reasons: Retrieved 12 October Why animal studies are often poor predictors of al-tib reactions to exposure. If we try it on a hot disease, such al-tivb diurnal fever, it would also have a beneficial effect because it gets rid of yellow bile. In his thesis on “The Members”, Avicenna explains that the humours help to make up the members of the body, gives a general description and how to repair them.

Avicenna divides the beginning stage of life in the following table, according to Oskar Cameron Gruner’s edition of the Canon of Medicine: Each member of the body is described to be given al-qanjn its individual temperament, each with its own degree of heat and moisture. That part, which enters the liver to keep its vitality ffi functions, becomes softer, al-tlbb and sensibly wet, and in its composition the softness of air and vapor of blood dominate.


The confusion and uncertainty relate to the potency of the drug.

What does Al-Qanun Fi Al-Tibb (the Canon of Medicine) say on head injuries?

This expanded theory of four temperaments is given in the following table: The direct benefit relates to the [phlegm], and the indirect refers to the fever. The secondary fluids are separated into “non-excrementitious” and “excrementitious”. There are only four because something cannot be simultaneously hotter and colder or drier and moister. It is a literal translation, ci most of the terms of Arabic origin that are found in it have different meanings from those of today.

The serous humour is described as a sweet fluid that is cold and moist in relation to blood and bilious humours. The miniatures shown here are the three basic stages of a physician’s visit with a patient: The following table is provided for the four periods of life: The third — as physicians refer to it — is natural spirit residing in the liver.

Avicenna says that the third period shows signs of decline in vigor and some decline in intellectual power. The Evolution Of Modern Medicine.

He was also the first to point out the fact that haematuria may be due to causes outside the urinary system, for example, blood diseases. He also gave his opinion of the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of some remedies, and gave details of where particular ingredients came from al-qznun how they were prepared.

So it is best to experiment first using the weakest [dosage] and then increase it gradually until you know the potency of the drug, leaving no room for doubt.

This action represents both the direct and the accidental benefit of the drug.

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